» Developing Training Programs

Adult Literacy and Basic Skills

As part of recruitment, assessment, and screening, Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training (EWDJT) programs evaluate each applicant’s ability to find employment and become a successful environmental technician. “Adult literacy” is sometimes used as an umbrella term for adult basic education. The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 defines literacy as “an individual’s ability to read, write, speak in English, and compute and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job, in the family of the individual, and in society.” Curriculum may include reading, writing, listening, speaking, mathematics, and financial literacy. In the Best Practices for Job Training Programs in Brownfields Redevelopment Initiatives report mentioned earlier, the pilot grantees identified the following best practices for basic skills and remedial education (#5 in the ten most critical components list). Although dated, these best practices still apply to EWDJT programs today. Partner with organizations that provide basic skills education. Provide adult basic education skills including math, reading, and preparation for GED testing. Establish basic skills learning lab for math, reading, and GED preparation; and provide flexible hours for the students. Provide real-world learning experiences (i.e. applied learning). Incorporate life skills such as interviewing, job seeking, and job retention. Videotape participant during interview to evaluate and improve life skills. Incorporate work ethics. Establish competency levels for technical programs. Utilize portfolio assessment. Require students to demonstrate computer proficiency. Some EWDJT programs conduct basic skills training in-house, while others partner with organizations in the community that offer basic skills and adult literacy training. For information on adult education and literacy programs, check local libraries, banks, community colleges, city/county human services offices, or CareerOneStop Centers. Individuals who have dropped out of high school can earn a high school diploma by attending adult education classes or through GED preparation. GED tests assess academic knowledge and skills typically developed in a high school education. Adults who have not completed high school use the GED credential to gain entry into the workplace and postsecondary education. GED Testing Service, a program of the American Council on Education, develops and distributes GED tests. The 2014 program is aligned with state and national college and career readiness standards. Minimum educational requirements for EWDJT training vary from program to program. Some require a high school diploma or enrollment in a GED program plus being at least 18 years of age. Many programs also require a drug test prior to admission. It is important to match training with minimum educational standards for entry into the program. Failure to do so results in setting students up for failure leading to low retention and placement rates. Read More
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Sample Brownfields Job Training Programs and Curricula

There is no one specific Brownfields Job Development and Training curriculum. Specific curricula should be determined after conducting a needs assessment and include input from your advisory board. Some programs have chosen to emphasize specific issues such as phytoremediation or meth labs. Others have chosen to focus on remediation technology or environmental assessment. The following chart, compiled by B’more Green, is a snapshot of courses offered in seventeen of the EPA-funded Brownfields Job Development and Training programs. It is interesting to note that 100% of the programs listed require HAZWOPER as part of their core curriculum, while 70% require Lead and Asbestos training, and 41% require Confined Space. The following links contain course outlines from some of the Brownfields Job Development and Training grantees and illustrate the curricula in more detail. Included are outlines from: Honolulu Community College — University of Hawaii Middlesex Community College St. Louis Community College — St. Louis University City of Winston-Salem B’more Green Also included in this section is a sample Participant Liability Waiver and Release of all Claims form from Eastern Iowa Community College District. Click each link to view the pdf file: (it opens up in a new window) 1. U. of Hawaii Health & Safety Job Training 2. U. of Hawaii Facility Maintenance Training 3. Mid-Connecticut Brownfields Job Training Initiative 4. St. Louis Brownfields Worker Training Program 5. Winston-Salem Brownfields Job Training Program 6. B’more Green Curriculum Summary 7. EICC Participant Liability Waiver and Release Read More
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Additional Resources

CROSS-CUTTING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS Association for Career and Technical Education Jobs for the Future National Council for Workforce Education is an affiliate council of the American Association of Community Colleges with a vision of developing and sustaining a premier workforce for the global economy. Work-Based Education, U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Vocational and Adult Education. Workforce Tools of the Trade Effective Training: Covering the Bases OSHA There are twenty-eight OSHA-approved state plans operating state-wide occupational safety and health programs. State plans are required to have standards and enforcement programs that are at least as effective as OSHA’s and may have different or more stringent requirements. Job Hazard Analysis (OSHA 3071). This OSHA booklet explains what a job hazard analysis is and offers guidelines to conduct a step-by-step analysis. HAZWOPER The Community and College Consortium for Health and Safety Training (CCCHST) is administered by one of HMTRI’s partners, the Partnership for Environmental Technology Education (PETE). CCCHST instructors, prepared by PETE and HMTRI, annually train 10,000 workers, technicians, and supervisors to protect themselves and their communities: From exposure to hazardous materials encountered during: Waste site cleanup. Disaster site cleanup. Brownfields redevelopment. In the transportation of hazardous materials. In the response to spills and releases of hazardous materials. Using a curriculum developed by HMTRI, CCCHST conducts an annual ten-day train-the-trainer program called the GreatEST Institute (Great Environmental Safety Training Institute) to deliver certifications for public and private responders and workers including: 40-hour Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) 24-hour Industrial Emergency Response DOT HazMat Confined Space Hazard Awareness and Communication Disaster Site Worker GENERAL INDUSTRY OUTREACH TRAINING OSHA Outreach Training Program—General Industry OSHA 10-Hour General Industry Outreach—Trainer Presentations CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OUTREACH TRAINING OSHA Outreach Training Program—Construction Industry OSHA 10-Hour Construction Industry Outreach—Trainer Presentations HAZARD COMMUNICATION STANDARD Hazard Communication/GHS CONFINED SPACE OSHA Safety and Health Topics: Confined Spaces RESPIRATORY PROTECTION OSHA Safety and Health Topics—Respiratory Protection DOT OSHA Safety and Health Topics—Trucking Industry ASBESTOS OSHA Safety and Health Topics—Asbestos LEAD AWARENESS OSHA Safety and Health Topics—Lead EPA—Learn About Lead RADON EPA—Learn About Radon EPA—Learn About Indoor Air Quality MOLD AND MOISTURE OSHA Safety and Health Topic—Molds FIRST AID AND AED OSHA Safety and Health Topics—Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) OSHA Safety and Health Topics—Medical and First Aid ADDITIONAL TRAINING Training Requirements in OSHA Standards Resource for Development and Delivery of Training to Workers Letters of Interpretations OSHA Training Standards Policy Statement ADULT EDUCATION RESOURCES Breaking Through: Helping Low-Skilled Adults Enter and Succeed in College and Careers, a joint publication of Jobs for the Future and the National Council for Workforce Education, November 2004. Creating Authentic Materials and Activities for the Adult Literacy Classroom: A Handbook for Practitioners, published by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy in April 2003. National Association for Developmental Education. Planning Programs for Adult Learners: A Practical Guide for Educators, Trainers, and Staff Developers, Second Edition. Published by Jossey-Bass, December 2001. Remedial/Developmental Education, U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education. EMPLOYABILITY / LIFE SKILLS TRAINING Workforce Investment Boards (WIBs) and their delivery organizations are organized under many names and organizational structures depending on each state’s approach to employment assistance. Often that assistance includes job readiness and employability skills training. CareerOneStop Centers, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor, are designed to provide a full range of integrated services to help businesses find qualified workers and help job seekers and workers obtain employment and training services to advance their careers. CareerOneStop products include: Credentials Center mySkills myFuture Worker ReEmployment Veterans ReEmployment Business Center Job Search Help for Ex-Offenders Disaster Recover Services Competency Model Clearinghouse CareerOneStop Mobile Some resources often overlooked, provide employability skills training either directly or as leveraged services. Local banks providing financial literacy training. Re-entry programs for ex-offenders. Veteran’s organizations. Public housing authorities. Health and welfare organizations. County human services offices. Private foundations and volunteers. Most community colleges offer life skills and job readiness training. Read More
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Identifying Potential Training Providers and Training Resources

Locally, several types of organizations are usually available to provide environmental remediation, safety, and health training. One or several may be interested in partnering or contracting with the Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training (EWDJT) program. Potential training providers may include consultants; remediation firms; or federal, state, or local agencies. Community colleges are excellent candidates as training providers because many have established environmental degrees and noncredit programs. Read More
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Environmental Remediation, Health, and Safety Training

The environmental field represents a variety of occupations. The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC), a partner of HMTRI, is a national Center of Excellence funded by the National Science Foundation. ATEEC’s mission is the advancement of environmental and energy technology education through curriculum, professional, and program development. In 2014, ATEEC published a report, Defining Environmental Technology, which identified thirteen occupational categories and corresponding tasks in the environmental technology field. These occupational categories include: Air Quality Emergency Preparedness and Response Energy Technologies and Services Environmental Information Collection and Analysis Environmental Laboratory Services Environmental Site Management Natural Resources Management Safety and Health Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Sustainability Wastewater Management Water Supply and Treatment Watershed Management All of these occupational categories can relate to potential jobs associated with the EPA Brownfields Economic Initiative. However, it should be noted that Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training (EWDJT) cooperative agreements will only fund limited categories as noted in the Request for Proposals (RFP) issued each year. Read More
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Safety and Health Issues

When you are conducting brownfields job training you need to enforce safety and health standards, both in the classroom and at brownfields sites. Also, several of the environmental, health and safety courses commonly offered in brownfields job training programs require that students have a medical waiver or physical examination. This is especially true if SCBAs will be used during the training. A sample waiver of liability is provided at the end of this chapter. [toggle title_open=”Safety and Health in the Classroom and at the Work Site” title_closed=”Safety and Health in the Classroom and at the Work Site” hide=”yes” border=”yes” style=”” excerpt_length=”0″ read_more_text=”Read More” read_less_text=”Read Less” include_excerpt_html=”no”] Whether your own organization is conducting training or you hire an outside training provider, you need to be sure that appropriate safety and health procedures are being followed in the classroom and at the work site. For example, Honolulu Community College provides a list of safety and health rules to students enrolled in its Emergency Response to Hazardous Materials course. The students are asked to sign and date this document, which states they agree to follow all safety and health rules. NIOSH Safety Checklist Program for Schools (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-101/default.html) provides information needed by schools to maintain safe classrooms, shops, and labs for teachers and students in career-technical education. This information can also be used by colleges and universities with occupational safety and health programs.[/toggle] [toggle title_open=”Safety & Health Hazards Associated with Brownfields Sites” title_closed=”Safety & Health Hazards Associated with Brownfields Sites” hide=”yes” border=”yes” style=”” excerpt_length=”0″ read_more_text=”Read More” read_less_text=”Read Less” include_excerpt_html=”no”] A document published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Brownfields Health & Safety for Sites Evaluated and Remediated Under Federal Brownfields Initiatives or State Voluntary Cleanup Programs (http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/brownfields/brnfld_qna.html), provides the following information on potential safety and health hazards associated with brownfields site assessment activities and clean-up activities.[/toggle] [toggle title_open=”Safety & Health Hazards Associated with Brownfields Site Assessment Activities and OSHA Standards that Apply” title_closed=”Safety & Health Hazards Associated with Brownfields Site Assessment Activities and OSHA Standards that Apply” hide=”yes” border=”yes” style=”” excerpt_length=”0″ read_more_text=”Read More” read_less_text=”Read Less” include_excerpt_html=”no”] “Brownfield site assessment tasks are performed on- and off-site. They can range from reviewing historical information (e.g., aerial photographs) to collecting subsurface soil samples and evaluating environmental contamination within site structures. Historic site records will often allow you to identify specific site contaminants, their likely concentrations and locations. The best way to determine which occupational hazards exist is to conduct a job hazard analysis for each assessment task. A job hazard analysis combines employee exposure information with equipment and procedural information and results in a list of chemical and physical hazards associated with each task. Sample collection is likely to be the most intrusive activity conducted during this phase. Familiarity with environmental sampling equipment (i.e., hand augers, mechanical soil drills, and drill rigs) and procedures will allow you to determine the physical hazards associated with collecting samples. When you have determined the hazards that may be present and tasks that could result in employee exposure, you can identify the applicable OSHA standard(s) to protect your employees. See the table below for a list of hazards that might be associated with your site assessment activities and the Federal OSHA standards that address those hazards. This list is not intended to be comprehensive. Rather, it suggests hazards that you should consider. Potential Hazards and OSHA Standards for Consideration duringSite Assessment Activities (Not Comprehensive) Site Exposure/Control Potentially Applicable OSHA Standard* 1910 General Industry 1926 Construction Hazard Assessment & Employee Training 29 CFR 1910.132(d) 29 CFR 1926.21(b) Chemical Exposure 29 CFR 1910.1000 29 CFR 1926.55 Confined Spaces 29 CFR 1910.146 29 CFR 1926.21(b)(6) 29 CFR 1926.353(b) Wiring Methods(temporary wiring) 29 CFR 1910.305(a)(2) 29 CFR 1926.405(a)(2) Electrical Hazards 29 CFR 1910.333 29 CFR 1926.416 Emergency Action Planning 29 CFR 1910.38 29 CFR 1926.35 Hand and PortablePowered Tools 29 CFR 1910 Subpart P 29 CFR 1926 Subpart I Heavy Equipment Operation 29 CFR 1910.95 29 CFR 1910 Subpart N 29 CFR 1926.52 29 CFR 1926 Subpart O Personal Protective Equipment 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I 29 CFR 1926 Subpart E Portable Fire Protection 29 CFR 1910.157 29 CFR 1926.150(c) Walking and Working Surfaces 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D 29 CFR 1926 Subpart X * This table does not include all of the applicable OSHA standards since each situation is unique. Standards enforced in states with OSHA-approved state plans may be different. The Federal General Industry and Construction citations are provided above. If you are under State OSHA jurisdiction, some of the standards may be different. The tasks that employees conduct determine which standards will apply. OSHA defines “construction work” in 29 CFR 1926.32 (g) and 1910.12 as “construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and decorating.”  Employers engaged in these activities are considered to be doing construction work and must comply with the Construction Safety and Health standards in 29 CFR 1926.[/toggle] [toggle title_open=”Safety and Health Hazards Associated with Brownfields Clean-Up Activities and OSHA Standards that Apply” title_closed=”Safety and Health Hazards Associated with Brownfields Clean-Up Activities and OSHA Standards that Apply” hide=”yes” border=”yes” style=”” excerpt_length=”0″ read_more_text=”Read More” read_less_text=”Read Less” include_excerpt_html=”no”] Site clean-up activities involve a greater variety of hazards and higher levels of exposure than site assessment activities. Depending on how and where hazardous substances are dispersed, an intrusive collection method (pumping, stripping, removing, or excavating) to consolidate environmentally contaminated material for treatment or disposal may be required. These types of operations usually result in the highest chemical exposure to employees, and require the most physical activity, equipment, and planning. The time and equipment required to do a task may add to its hazards. For example, the use of heavy equipment and on-site treatment technologies may require hearing protection, adequate and appropriate storage of flammable and corrosive materials, other personal protective equipment (PPE), and emergency response resources. Since clean-up activities usually occur over a longer duration than site assessment activities, employers may need to provide more on-site facilities for personal hygiene needs. See the table below for a list of hazards that might be associated with Brownfields clean-up operations and the OSHA standards that address those hazards. This list is not intended to be comprehensive. Rather, it suggests hazards that should be considered. Potential Hazards and OSHA Standards for Consideration during Cleanup Activities (Not Comprehensive) Site Exposure/Control Potentially Applicable OSHA Standard* 1910 General Industry 1926 Construction Hazard Assessment & Employee Training 29 CFR 1910.132(d) 29 CFR 1926.21(b) Chemical Exposure 29 CFR 1910.1000 29 CFR 1926.55 Noise Exposure 29 CFR 1910.95 29 CFR 1926.52 Sanitation 29 CFR 1910.141 29 CFR 1926.51 Wiring Methods (temporary wiring) 29 CFR 1910.305(a)(2) 29 CFR 1926.405(a)(2) Electrical Hazards 29 CFR 1910.333 29 CFR 1926.416 Emergency Action Planning 29 CFR 1910.38 29 CFR 1926.35 Excavation covered by 1926 29 CFR 1926 Subpart P Confined Space Entry 29 CFR 1910.146 29 CFR 1926.21(b)(6) 29 CFR 1926.353(b) Material Handling 29 CFR Subpart N 29 CFR Subpart N 29 CFR 1926.600-602 29 CFR 1926.604 Building Demolition covered by 1926 29 CFR 1926 Subpart T Site Contaminant Abatement 29 CFR 1910.1000-1029 29 CFR 1910.1043-1052 29 CFR 1926.55 29 CFR 1926.62 29 CFR 1926.1101-1152 Elevated Work Surfaces 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D 29 CFR 1910 Subpart F 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L 29 CFR 1926 Subpart M 29 CFR 1926.552 Chemical Storage 29 CFR 1910 Subpart H 29 CFR 1910.1200 29 CFR 1926.59 29 CFR 1926 Subpart F Personal Protective Equipment 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I 29 CFR 1926 Subpart E Heavy Equipment Operation 29 CFR 1910.95 29 CFR 1910 Subpart N 29 CFR 1926.52 29 CFR 1926 Subpart O Tasks-Long Duration 29 CFR 1910.141-142 29 CFR 1926.51 * This table does not include all of the applicable OSHA standards since each situation is unique. Standards enforced in states with OSHA-approved state plans may be different. The Federal General Industry and Construction citations are provided above. If you are under state OSHA jurisdiction, some of the standards may be different. The tasks that employees conduct determine which standards will apply. OSHA defines “construction work” in 29 CFR 1926.32 (g) and 1910.12 as “construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and decorating.”  Employers engaged in these activities are considered to be doing construction work and must comply with the Construction Safety and Health Regulations in 29 CFR 1926.[/toggle] [toggle title_open=”Additional Resources” title_closed=”Additional Resources” hide=”yes” border=”yes” style=”” excerpt_length=”0″ read_more_text=”Read More” read_less_text=”Read Less” include_excerpt_html=”no”] Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/85-115.html), DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 85-115, 1985. This guidance manual was prepared by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Job Hazard Analysis (OSHA 3071). This OSHA booklet explains what a job hazard analysis is and offers guidelines to help you conduct your own step-by-step analysis. [/toggle] Read More
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Employability / Life Skills Training

Employability skills are “a group of essential abilities that involve the development of a knowledge base, expertise level, and mindset that is increasingly necessary for success in the modern workplace. Employability skills are typically considered essential qualifications for many job positions and hence have become necessary for an individual’s employment success at just about any level within a business environment.” Source: BusinessDictionary.com Employability skills are sometimes also referred to as life skills or soft skills. Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) In 1990, the Secretary of Labor appointed a commission to determine the skills young people need to succeed in the world of work. The commission’s fundamental purpose was to encourage a high-performance economy characterized by high-skill, high-wage employment. Although the commission completed its work in 1992, its findings and recommendations continue to be a current source of valuable information for individuals and organizations involved in education and workforce development. The Department of Labor’s (DOL) website includes several online documents about SCANS. One of the documents, Workplace Essential Skills: Resources Related to the SCANS Competencies and Foundation Skills, is a comprehensive report on necessary workplace skills. The report was developed by ACT, Inc. under the direction of the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment, and Training Administration, and the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. It provides the results of a comparison of the workplace basic skills defined by SCANS with skills frameworks developed by a variety of national and international organizations. The comparison found a great degree of commonality in the skill definitions, yielding a comprehensive common language for the discussion and examination of workplace basic skills. The report is intended to serve as a guide for human resources personnel, trainers, educators, and researchers who are interested in workplace basic skills training. The research also expanded the usefulness of the skill definitions by developing behaviorally-anchored scales for each skill. These scales can serve as a common standard and reference point for workers, employers, trainers, educators, and program administrators as they consider several work-related activities. Identify the skills and skill levels required for employment. Estimate the skill levels of current or future workers. Identify the skill development that will help match workers to job requirements. Describe individual skills as part of a job transition process. Identify valid assessments for measuring workplace readiness. Use a hierarchical taxonomy of skills for easing the development of individual training plans and for preparing and developing employment training programs. The Employability Skills Framework is a resource for information and tools to inform the instruction and assessment of employability skills. Featured resources include: Source matrix that compares the employability skills identified by a sample of national and state standards and assessments. Crosswalk that relates the Employability Skills Frameworks to academic and technical skill standards with the Common Core State Standards and the Common Career Technical Core. Time for the U.S. to Reskill?, released by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), details the literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving skills of U.S. adults in comparison to adults in other countries. The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction has developed the Wisconsin’s Employability Skills Certificate: Implementation Guide. The Employability Skills Certificate Program is designed to address the skills and behaviors that are critical in the 21st century. In the report, Best Practices for Job Training Programs in Brownfields Redevelopment Initiatives, the EPA-funded Brownfields Job Development and Training pilot grantees identified the following as best practices in employability skills (#7 in the ten most critical components list). Teach participants how to complete a job application. Assist participants in completing a resume and stress the importance of keeping it current. Conduct mock job interviews to develop skills. Stress the importance of attendance and punctuality, and track attendance. Develop specific plans to help participants improve skills and work ethic. Add attendance sheets to portfolio. Develop list of references during training experience. Provide general life survival skills. Stress manners, how to dress, and etiquette. Negotiate ways to clear or pay past traffic fines and other fines and civic responsibility. Improve communication skills; for example, ask student to explain why he or she should be hired. Reinforce that a positive internship establishes a solid foundation for future employment. Provide business structure as part of the program. Incorporate civic responsibility into program. Stress drug testing in the program. Provide an understanding of liability for employer. Incorporate conflict management skills into program. Send participant to multiple interviews to get practice and improve interview skills. Videotape interviews to provide feedback. Read More
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Introduction

The first step to developing an effective training program is to identify knowledge, skills, and credentials students need for successful employment. Input from prospective employers is essential regarding the specific types of skills and certifications necessary for employment with their firm. While jobs associated with Environmental Workforce Development and Job Training (EWDJT) are classified as environmental technology, it should be noted that environmental technology includes a wide variety of occupations. Workforce needs can vary greatly depending on site characterization and the nature of contamination. For discussion, entry-level training can be divided into three categories. Environmental Remediation, Health, and Safety Training Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Employability/Life Skills Training Of these categories, only environmental remediation, health, safety, and limited employability training is supported by EPA as part of the EWDJT program. Other training, including remedial education and life skills, must be supported with strong partnerships and leveraged resources. Read More
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